On the Hoof
On the Wing
The following travel times are based off of attached and linked data entires, and should give a good indication of how long it takes for an individual to get from Point A to Point B in most fantasy settings:
Obviously, a scholar from a large city is not going to be able to travel 36 miles in a day, on foot, unless he walks considerable distances on a regular basis. The usual game listing sets the average human walking speed at 30ft every 6 seconds, which translates to 3.4 miles per hour, which isn't unreasonable. A 'jog' is considered twice that, and a sprint is considered four times that; the world record for the sprint, below, is 20 miles per hour -- while most game books put a human sprint at only 13.6 miles per hour (17mph if you use x5 instead of the standard x4 multiplier).
Obviously, certain character traits, such a high Constitution, can alter a character's endurance times, as can certain Feats. Terrain also plays a considerable part in things. Consider the Hardrock Hundred Mile Endurance Run held in Colorado, where the 100 mile distance includes differences in elevation during its 100 mile course of over 20,000 feet. Karl Meltzer ran his fourth Hardrock in 27 hours and 7 minutes. Admittedly the foot-path on the Hardrock is well identified for the contestants, but one could imagine a mountain trail-blazer doing an equivalent to the Hardrock in some fantasy setting, with an unlit trail, over the course of two days.
Some good standards for the well-seasoned adventurers on foot are as follows (leisurely pace / hard pace / exhaustion run):
A number of world records (available from Wikipedia.org) gives us a perspective for the professional limits, and we can scale back realistically from there.
400m: 44.6 seconds (20mph)
1 hour record: 21km
Just for the halibut, here are some other 'on foot' world records for consideration in distance calculations:
Long Jump: 8.95m or 29.3ft
Something of historical note: humans can run down any animal on earth in temperatures exceeding 100F. No other animal on the face of this planet can dissipate body heat as fast as a human being, with it's bipedal gate, sweat glands, and limited fur. Some anthropologists suggest that this is the reason we evolved our bipedal gate, is to hunt down game. The idea came from studies of the Kalahari bushmen in the 20th Century.
Humans under these operating conditions tend to consume large quanities of food and water -- more so than most people would think. The average human on campaign consumes about 8lbs of food and water a day; super-competitors undergoing events such as those listed above can consume over 12,000 calories a day, requiring very high-energy foods and plenty of water (figure 16lbs a day of food and water for campaigners).
Dwarves, due to their considerable hardiness, could conceivably out-perform humans on endurance races, though this is unlikely to happen. A dwarven characteristic allows them to travel with heavy loads without penalizing their movement rate or speed, but they have higher heat-dissipation issues than most humans, due to their higher volume-to-weight ratios. Essentially, despite their short stature, dwarves are capeable of competing with humans for endurance event records.
Sand Orcs are better adapted to desert conditions than humans, but again, heat dissipation considerations limit them. Instead of watery sweat, they have a thicker and more oily sweat that protects them from dehydration, but also retains considerable heat. (This, incidentally, is the basis for the common misconception of orcs having ichor for blood or sweat.) Orcish constitutions allow them to operate with core temperatures approaching 120F, so despite their lack of normal sweat glands, they can still compete with humans for endurance competitions in the middle grounds, though humans far out-strip sand orcs in the further distances.
On the Hoof
Now, horses are different than humans, in that they cannot be continually ridden during their travel times -- they must be walked at a dismount on occasion or slowed to a jog (trot in horse-speak). Despite this, horses can cover considerably longer distances than humans on foot, at greater speeds as well. The SeraOnline group's statistical data indicated riding speeds (at a trot) of between 8 and 9 mph for their 50 mile endurance rances -- distances covered in only six hours on good terrain!
Such a ride would be split up such that it would not be one contiguous ride. One can figure a little over ten miles per stretch of movement, and then a cool-down and imbibement period, before moving on. The ten miles per stretch would include stopping at every water crossing, and periodic stops to let the horse drink water.
World record horse-racing events on mountainous terrain include (but are not limited to)*:
25 miles: 2 hours, 30 minutes
* Statistics taken from the 2006 Ride Results of the Pacific Northwest Endurance Rides home page, and backed up with special thanks to Dawn Engle.
Some good standards for the well-seasoned adventurers on horseback are as follows (leisurely pace / hard pace / exhaustion run, with 'exhaustion runs' assuming plenty of remounts):
*Swamps more than knee-deep to a horse are considered impassable.
A good standard would be 50 miles a day for an endurance horse, which would include eight hours of rest each night, breaks throughout the day, and plenty of food and water. A good horse would consume 25 gallons of water a day during such a ride, assuming temperate conditions; more would be consumed in arid or hot conditions. A general rule of thumb (thanks, Dawn) is for a horse to consume 10% of its weight each day -- most of that in roughage like grass and hay. The more athletic the horse, the more protein and energy-rich food it needs in that 10%, such as oats and even fats. Figure on a hard rider needing about 10lbs of oats a day for a normal riding horse of 1,000lbs.
Destriers and other heavy work-horses that can weigh as much as 2,000lbs obviously need even more food and water than that. Whether destrier or riding horse, figure on a remount with as much weight in grain as the rider, assuming available water, for any character to sustain a cross-country movement without way-stations or inns along the way.
Another way to sustain endurance events is to have remounts; essentially another horse with no rider and minimal weight. When the horse being ridden begins to tire, the rider can switch to the other more-rested horse, and continue on; this allows his own tired horse to recuperate somewhat, without having a heavy rider on its back.
Remounts can also be used to carry supplies, as can donkeys (also known as asses or burros), and mules. Horses used strictly for supply loads are traditionally not rider-broken, and carry less weight than horses broken to riders; such horses usually carry only about 150lbs of supplies. Donkeys can carry about 75lbs comfortably, but their speed is significantly less than that of a horse, yet their endurance is actually greater than a horse. Mules -- hybrids of donkeys and horses -- can carry 175lbs of supplies without difficulty. This information comes courtesy of the Bureau of Public Secrets, and includes a detailed packing list for campers (and adventurers).
The Monstrous Manual listing for mules puts a light load for them at 230lbs, and a heavy load at 690lbs. While reasonable, the listed loads does not allow for fast movement. A mule's movement rate is 30ft/rnd, and with only a 175lb load of supplies, a mule can still walk, trot, and run for considerable distances; with light to heavy loads (as listed in the manual), a mule is limited to its walking speed of 30ft/rnd.
The most important consideration in using any sort of mount, is the human factor. Even riders who do the 100 mile circuit as often as they can, can barely walk after performing one of these endurance races, despite it being broken up into four 25 mile heats. Peoples born in the saddle are obviously more accustomed to the saddle, but even a knight who spends quite a bit of time travelling by horseback would be in no condition to walk away from a 100 mile race.
Centaurs have less endurance characteristics than horses, yet their considerably higher intelligence allows them to pace themselves better for endurance events. For centaurs without additional loads or riders, one can figure about the same travel speeds as horses.
For those people unfamiliar with swimming, 'freestyle' is the kind typically used by lifeguards to get to drowning victims as quickly as possible; it's the fastest unassisted swim system for humans.
The following are world records to keep things in perspective (courtesy of USA Swimming dot org):
50m Freestyle: 21 seconds (or 5mph)
Calculations or considerations for characters in a swimming environment have to factor in the speed of the water, and its temperature. Colder water will sap the energy of a man faster than warmer water will.
Most of the game systems list 1/2 to 1/4 of walking speed as a normal Swim check (for d20 systems); this translates to a swim speed of a little less than 2mph -- very realistic for long-term swims. For maximum swim speeds of an unencumbered player, regular movement rates on foot (i.e. 30ft every six seconds) are reasonable.
The ceiling on sailing speed is about 50 knots, and as of October 2006, has yet to be broken in any record currently held by humans. The world encurance record for sailing was an average of almost 18 knots (20.6mph), set by the Orange II, an advanced catamaran design that covered 831 miles in 24 hours, and circled the earth in only 50 and a half days.
Most sailing vessels in earlier human history were happy with much more meager speeds. Because the speed of a ship varies considerably with currents, sail design, hull design, and even what types or rigging and equipment are used, determining distances and speeds travelled can be difficult.
Most fantasy settings involve a traditional list of European-style ships: longships, galleys, cogs, and carracks. Arabian- and Indian-style settings would include ships such as the dhow and the baghlah. Oriental settings have a variety of junks, which are often described from one another by their dynasties, with each dynasty using a larger and stronger form of war-junk. Polynesian- and Indonesian-style settings might use catamarans and trimarans.
In addition to the wide variety of vessels that take to the seas, each vessel can be modified so that it differs from its peers in differing ways. Thus, trying to describe transport times aboard sailing vessels is akin to describing transport times aboard automobiles -- there are too many variables, even though one can have generic information readily available.
More Gaeleth-specific sailing information is available in the ships section. There, for instance, the cruising speed of a light galleon can be found -- though some would say that a light galleon is nothing more than a carrack. The confusion of names and naming systems leads only to a few generalities:
Only extremely advanced or magically-aided sailing vessels could achieve speeds comparable to that of a horse at a gallop, and due to winds and currents, average sailing speeds would approximate to that of a horse at a trot -- yet the wood and sails and wind of the ship had far more endurance than that of a horse. Throughout all the Age of Sails on earth, one could expect a ship to travel no more than 200 miles in a day, tops*, with 100 miles a day far more typical.
Special thanks to Keith A. Pickering and his analysis of the Columbus expedition.
An analysis of the merfolk in the Monstrous Manual leads one to conclude that the merfolk can swim relatively fast, and their endurance is a bit higher than that of most humans -- and presumably their elite endurance competitors can perform even more ably. It should not be difficult for a merman to cover a hundred miles in a day, swimming. Again, current speeds and water temperature play into effect, and cooler waters can actually allow for longer distances to be travelled due to its heat dissipation ability.
On the Wing
From May Thatcher Cooke's Speed of Bird Flight, 1933, we get some interesting information on bird flight speeds and their average speeds. Ducks and geese, for instance, average about 40mph on longer flights, while the Peregrine falcon averages over 60mph -- and hits prey at an estimated 150mph during a dive. Cook writes of a duck hawk that was timed over a 400 yard field in California at a staggering 180mph during a dive. The USGS site's 'Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center' has more recent flight speeds, lists hawks in the general range of 25mph, ducks and geese at 40mph. Songbirds typically move at around 30mph.
Endurance of those times is different. The Canada Goose -- probably one of the better examples of flight time and endurance, manages about 125 miles a day. The article mentions a Lesser Yellowleg making 316 miles a day, travelling 1,900 miles in six days!
Most flight times for Fantasy creatures or items are usually listed as numbers only -- 30ft per round, for example. Because of this, the flight times listed below are strictly number interpretations, as might be given in any of the handbooks:
Working closely with the acknowledged flight times of birds, we see that the flight speeds are indicative of very liesurely flight -- the equivalent of walking in human parlance. Using rules similar to 'run' and 'sprint' from the OGL's d20 system, we see that the Hawk above at x2 for a 'run' is 14mph, and at x4 for a 'sprint' is only moving at 28mph -- versus the 25mph hawk listing from the Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center.
This means calculating the daily distances possible for various birds and even fantasy creatures can be done on a rough basis when considering wind conditions. Wind analysis required familiarization with the Beaufort Scale of wind speeds, and are depicted here as light (6mph), moderate (15mph), and strong (27mph). For a tail wind, one would simply add the wind speed to the bird's flight speed; thus a hawk could travel 50mph with a favorable strong wind at its back, or sustain 25mph for considerably greater flight times. Heading into the wind requires subtraction.
Endurance times can be calculated on a par with the hooved endurance events. A sorcerer's raven familiar could be expected to fly 160 miles in an emergency with calm winds all the way (5mph x4 for an exhaustion run = 20mph, x8 hours = 160miles). This means a d20 great red wyrm could cover 752 miles a day (23mph x 4 for an exhaustion run = 94mph, x8 hours = 752 miles) -- though the dragon's hunting ground from its nest would probably be only a 368 mile radius from the next (23mph x 2 for a jog = 46mph, x8 hours = 368 miles).